Biomass-energy is coming back to be popular again

Biomass is an organic substance that is a natural source of energy (solar, air, water, minerals in the soil) and can be used to produce energy. These organic substances are obtained from various plants and animals. 

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Such as wood chips, garbage, agricultural waste or by-products from production processes in the agricultural industry. manure, including leftovers or household waste, etc.

Or simply say that biomass energy means energy from organic matter

Humans have known biomass water to use as energy since ancient times. Until later, the world has developed more prosperity, using more energy. together with the discovery of coal and natural gas resources an enormous amount (It was felt during the discovery of oil and natural gas resources in the initial stages), so the fuels such as crude oil, coal and natural gas were substituted. making energy from biomass play a much less role

At present, biomass energy is coming back to be popular again. Because the world, including Thailand, is experiencing an energy crisis. Oil and natural gas prices continue to rise. Including the amount of oil and natural gas is greatly reduced. and is about to run out in the not so long future together with all types of fossil fuels when burned will release a large amount of poisonous gas resulting in the search for new forms of energy to replace energy from fossil fuels Energy from biomass is therefore an interesting alternative. Because biomass fuels can be renewed all the time. Because our fullformcollection country is an agricultural country with agricultural waste. and many agricultural industries Therefore, it is a good opportunity to use such waste to benefit. In addition, it also reduces the burden of disposing of such waste. In addition, the production of electricity from biomass energy is an investment that has relatively low production costs compared to other types of energy.

biomass energy

Biomass energy refers to energy obtained from various types of biomass by the process of converting biomass into various forms of energy. The process of converting biomass energy into various forms of energy is as follows:

1. Direct combustion (Combustion)

combustion or combustion It is the oldest and easiest way to convert biomass into heat energy. When burning biomass The heat will be released according to the heat value of that type of biomass, for example, rice straw or rice husk biomass will produce less heat than biomass fuel, wood chips, etc. burning as A chemical reaction that converts mass into heat energy. Carbon gyanhindiweb dioxide and steam Heat from incineration can be used to produce steam with high temperature and pressure. to drive a steam turbine to continue to produce electricity Biomass suitable for direct combustion is agricultural waste leaves and wood chips, etc.

Combustion is a combination reaction of biomass with oxygen. It quickly ignites and emits heat. Most combustion does not use pure oxygen but instead uses air as air contains 21% oxygen by volume.

Type of biomass fuel (kilograms)

1) Firewood has a calorific value of fuel 3,820 kcal/kg and 15,989 kJ/g.

2) Charcoal has a calorific value of fuel of 6,900 kcal/kg and 28,881 kJ/g.

3) Bagasse has a calorific value of fuel 1,800 kcal/kg and 7,534 kJ/g.

4) Rice husk has the calorific value of fuel 3,440 kcal/kg and 14,398 kJ/g.

5) Sawdust has a calorific value of fuel 4,000 kcal/kg and 16,742 kJ/g.

  1. Turn biomass into liquid fuel

Converting biomass to liquid fuel can be done in 2 ways.

The extraction of oil from plants (biomass) and converting it into biodiesel. and fermentation of biomass to turn into alcohol.

It extracts oil from plants (biomass) and converts it into biodiesel.

production of liquid fuels from plants There are several processes used for production as follows:

extract oil from oil plants

There are many types of oil plants. such as oil palm, coconut, soybean, peanut, sesame and castor, sunflower seed, etc. There are two methods commonly used to extract oil from vegetable oilseeds:

  1. Compression method extraction
  2. Using a solute

and extraction by compression method Can be separated into 2 types:

  1. cold compress
  2. Hot compress

compression by hydraulic press This method is suitable for oilseeds that are soft and not too hard, such as soybeans, rice bran, peanuts, etc. The oil is of good quality.

compression by screw press Suitable for oilseeds such as sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, etc. The oil will have good quality, natural color, smell and taste.

The cold pressing method uses pressure on the oilseeds to crack the seeds and squeeze the oil out. The oil obtained from the compression method can be used immediately. However, the limitation of this method is that it yields a small amount of oil and a high amount of oil residue in the residue.

2. Solvent Extraction

Although the extraction of oil from the seeds. Using a solvent is a much more difficult method than the compression method. But it extracts the oil from the seeds in this way. It is widely used in the vegetable oil production industry. Because it yields more oil than compression extraction, hexane is commonly used as a solvent. After extraction, a solution containing vegetable oil is dissolved in hexane. Then filter out the grain waste. The solution is then fractionated to separate the hexane. get vegetable oil which must be bleached, absorbed, smelled and other substances removed before obtaining vegetable oil for cooking Extraction by this method therefore has a small amount of oil attached to the pulp. is about 0.5 percent

Then bring the vegetable oil to go through the process. transesterification to produce biodiesel and be used as fuel in diesel cars

Refined vegetable oils are not suitable for use as fuel in conventional engines. Because vegetable oils have molecules that are too large. Therefore, vegetable oils have to be made to have smaller molecules.

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